Cambrian Intelligence: The Early History of the New AI

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Until the mid-1980s, AI researchers assumed that an intelligent system doing high-level reasoning was necessary for the coupling of perception and action. In this traditional model, cognition mediates between perception and plans of action. Realizing that this core AI, as it was known, was illusory, Rodney A. Brooks turned the field of AI on its head by introducing the behavior-based approach to robotics. The cornerstone of behavior-based robotics is the realization that the coupling of perception and action gives rise to all the power of intelligence and that cognition is only in the eye of an observer. Behavior-based robotics has been the basis of successful applications in entertainment, service industries, agriculture, mining, and the home. It has given rise to both autonomous mobile robots and more recent humanoid robots such as Brooks' Cog.

This book represents Brooks' initial formulation of and contributions to the development of the behavior-based approach to robotics. It presents all of the key philosophical and technical ideas that put this "bottom-up" approach at the forefront of current research in not only AI but all of cognitive science.

 

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Página 36 - This report describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the research is
Página 155 - where they discuss the foundations of a 10-year project to encode knowledge having the scope of a simple encyclopedia. It is a totally unsituated, and totally disembodied approach. Everything the system is to know is through hand-entered units of 'knowledge', although there is some hope expressed that later it will be able to learn itself by reading. Smith
Página 60 - solutions that use behavior-producing modules: • Situatedness: The robots are situated in the world—they do not deal with abstract descriptions, but with the "here" and "now
Página 75 - part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Office of Naval Research contract N00014-85-K-0124, in part by the Hughes Artificial Intelligence Center,
Página 67 - piece of network in its own right, although it may implicitly rely on presence of earlier pieces of network. For instance, an explore layer does not need to explicitly avoid obstacles, as the designer knows that the existing avoid layer will take care of it. A fixed priority arbitration scheme is used to handle conflicts.
Página 64 - Rosenschein and Kaelbling at SRI International (and later at Téleos Research) pointed out that an observer can legitimately talk about an agent's beliefs and goals, even though the agent need not manipulate symbolic data structures at run time. A formal symbolic specification of the agent's design can be compiled away, yielding efficient robot programs
Página 61 - A planning program, STRIPS, operated on those symbolic descriptions of the world to generate a sequence of actions for Shakey. These plans were translated through a series of refinements into calls to atomic actions in fairly tight feedback loops with atomic sensing operations using Shakey's other sensors, such as a bump bar and odometry.
Página 62 - whose programs worked in a make-believe world of blocks—if one program could be built which understood such a world completely and could also manipulate that world, then it seemed that programs which assumed that abstraction could in fact be connected to the real world without great difficulty. The role of computer vision was "given a two-dimensional image, infer the objects that produced it, including their shapes, positions, colors, and sizes
Página 64 - are complete representations of the external environment, besides being impossible to obtain, are not at all necessary for agents to act in a competent manner. Many of the actions of an agent are quite separable—coherent intelligence can emerge from independent subcomponents interacting in the world
Página 10 - is that we can build layers of a control system corresponding to each level of competence and simply add a new layer to an existing set to move to the next higher level of overall competence. We start by building a complete robot control system

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